THE IRON TRADE

EVIEW

VoLUME XXIV.

CLEVELAND, O.,

OCTOBER 1, 1891. NUMBER 40.

Tue IRON TRADE REVIEW.

A IOURNAL OF THE [RON AND STEEL INDUSTRY, THE MACHINERY TRADE AND KINDRED INTERESTS IS PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY

THE IRON TRADE REVIEW CO., 27, 29 and 31 Vincent Street, Cleveland, Ohio.

TERMS, (strictly in advance):

Three montha.........

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application.

ENTERED AT THE POST OFFICE AT CLEVELAND, O., AS SECOND CLASS MATTER.

CLEVELAND, O., OCTOBER 1, I89QI.

THE WEEK IN IRON CIRCLES.

One of the best evidences of the growing strength of the money market is the fact that the recent heavy failures in New York have been quickly overcome by the strong wave of confidence which is sweeping the country. T'wo months ago the same influences might have been disastrous. The general business situation continues good, hot weather during the past ten days having carried the corn crop almost entirely out of danger from early frosts, and the need in many sections now is for bountiful rains ‘to break the continued drouth. As the week closes the outlook is good for free selling of pig metal during balance of the year, but the evidence accumulating indicates that while prices might fluctuate somewhat there is likely to be but little materialchange. Some sur- prise is expressed that the current demand should be equal to the current rate of production, which is very near tothe top notch. The fact that this is the case, in spite of the very small consumption by railroads and allied industries, is deemed a strong argument for a better iron market. Consumption was never so large for miscel- laneous purposes in the history of the country as it is at present. Iron pipe, stoves, agricultural machinery, architectural work, etc., are calling for more iron than ever before in the history of those trades. At Cincinnati a good deal of business has been placed by all leading sellers since our last report. No material change is to be noted in prices. Concessions that were common a month ago are impossible to obtain, unless for occasional lots for spot delivery and cash. Grey forge is generally firmly held at $10 at Birmingham ; some sales for next year’s deliveries have been made on that basis ; none are reported at the advanced price for this year’s deliveries. Northern irons have not felt the improved spirit as much as Southern, perhaps because they were not as much depressed during the low prices. There is a disposition, however, not to take forward con- tracts unless at higher prices. Charcoal irons are not in improved demand, though better things are expected before long. Softeners are moving out more freely than for some time past. Old car wheels are becoming scarce and have advanced $2 per ton from lowest prices. Considerable activity in the way of sales of pig metal has characterized the Chicago market during the past week; a number of round deals have been closed on both Northern and Southern cokes, a noticeable degree of activity having existed on the latter. Grades sold have been mainly Nos. 2 and 3 Foundry and grey forge; prices have in nearly every case ranged below what has been considered as the bottom market—more than this some

General Features

exceptionally long deliveries have been made, one sale of 600 or 800 tons grey forge have been taken by a prominent Southern furmace for deliveries running twelve

months beginning with October, and even this deal was put through on the basis of bottom figures, no advance in price being secured even for the long-scattered delivery. Transactions on Lake Superior charcoal iron have been light ; some deals, however, have been put through with car wheel manufacturers and car builders; prices made on these sales have been close. Southern charcoal is in better de- mand and inquiries are in for some round lots for deliveries running

well into next year. Furnaces making metal of this class are, how- ever, conservative, and while willing to sell at close prices for deliv- ery during the next ninety days, are indisposed to book long running contracts unless at a fair price. The activity noted in our last Detroit report has not diminished during the week, and buyers have shown a willingness to make contracts extending as far into next year as they can at present prices. However, when furnaces ask a premium for deliveries beyond the first of the year they decline to pay it. While some furnaces are booking orders for deliveries ex- tending for six to mine months, others will not quote for delivery beyond the present year. More demand is being made- for strong Ohio irons than at any time within the past year. This may be par- tially accounted for by some furnaces, whose irons are well and favorably known to the trade, having again announced their inten- tions of entering the list of active competitors in this market. Lake Superior charcoal is active and firm. Southern furnaces willing to contract for early part of next year have had no trouble to close several large deals. Ohio soft irons are in good demand and an advance of twenty-five cents has been made on a few favorite brands. Orders for iron for delivery this year have been steady in the Louis- ville market during the week, and there has been quiet buying in quantities of 500 to 1,000 tons. No increase in price, however, has taken place, as the buying would not justify it, nor has any anxiety been expressed by buyers that purchases could not be made on basis of prices that have existed for some time. Car wheel irons have been quiet, and those sold have been at prices that are regarded by many as much below cost. Railroad buying has not increased to any extent and it is felt that until a strong movement from this source begins, prices will drag, when one considers the large amount of charcoal iron in stock.

For a few days this week it looked as though there were a change in store for the pig iron market, and the possibilities are not wholly excluded that such might be the case; but for the present the excitement has died away, and things are practically unchanged. Early this week reports were re- ceived to the effect that the furnaces in the Mahoning and Shenango valleys had shut down, owing to the demand on the part of their em- ployes for a ten per cent. advance in the price of labor. As the pres- ent price of pig iron is about the lowest ever known—Bessemer sell- ing as low as $14.75 at the furnace—such a demand at this time was equivalent to a general shut-down, since it meant an increase in the cost of production of fifteen cents a ton. The general impression among local furnacemen was that the report was founded on fact, but at this writing it is learned that the only furnaces affected are six stacks in Sharpsville, having a total capacity of, say, five thousand tons of metal a week. The demand, it seems, is not general in the valley, but it is nevertheless reported that it was granted in Sharon, and some of the furnacemen are somewhat disturbed over the affair sinces it serves to foreshadow similar events ona larger scale. Yet they all agree that a month’s shut-down would benefit the furnace interests in more ways than one, and help the market immensely. Lake freights have taken a temporary tumble, owing to the customary accumulation in Chicago and at the head of the lakes of ore carriers, looking for grain charters. Thus these two commodities, ore and grain, continually play hide-and-seek with lake freights. When there is a call for grain boats, the wild tonnage leaves the ore trade, makes a rush for the grain bids, and breaks the market, while the scarcity of boats drives up the ore rate. Then the reverse action sets in, and back go the boats to the ore business. This week the plethora of grain boats has depressed the rate, and Escanaba charters were plenty at ninety-five cents. There is little doubt, however, that the market will recover, and the closing charters will be decidedly higher. The demand for non-Bessemer ores continues, but the producers are in no position to sell, for want of carriers as‘much as for any other reason. Moreover, the offers for ore are no better in price than the early sales of the season, the advance barely covering the higher freights, so that there is no inducement to sell at this time, and at the prices offered.

The Local

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RECORDS OF ORE-CARRYING RAILROADS.

Instructive figures have been prepared by the Cleveland & Pitts- burgh Railroad Company for submission to the municipal authorities of Cleveland. They show the receipts of iron ore at Lake Erie ports for the past five years by each railroad engaged in the ore-carrying trade. The railroads so engaged are the Columbus, Hocking Valley & Toledo, the Ohio Central, the Wheeling & Lake Erie, the Balti- more & Ohio, the Cincinnati, Sandusky and Cleveland, the Cleve- land, Lorain & Wheeling, the New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio (Erie), the Cleveland & Pittsburgh, the Valley, the Cleveland, Cin- cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, the Pittsburgh, Painesville & Fair- port, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Pittsburgh, Youngs- town & Ashtabula, the Erie & Pittsburgh,-the Philadelphia & Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, and the Lehigh Valley. To these is added the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company. These figures in the aggregate have already been collated by Zhe /ron Trade Review, but this is the first time the details by railroads have ap- peared in print. The table follows:

Port. Railroad. | 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. | 1890. Toledo.......... 26,793 61,729 75,001 82 a 167,693 Huron ......... WwW. s s E.. 45,372 21,288 4,351 680) 1,200 Sandusky..... 157,970 160,00 159,924 186,052) 177,579 Lorain ......... . 100,852 145,000 197,006 280,0C0} 2%4,230 Cleveland......N. Y., P 614,642 529,409 512,953 816,812 855,855 Cleveland.....C. & 283,114 374,674 402,419 578,332| 799,327 Cleveland..... V y coches Von gebiniigngimenihbeinysisase 144,640 103,219 80,980 110,475) 97,306 Ir 10 BR ER OU oo cas ccdanenenpaiine ecneneiue] ateneebenasecks 211,293 145,000 199,983) 225,934 Cleveland.....C., C 5 SES evs leasegnanedieaes BIEEEE .cinsseneseten 6,863) 11,723 Fairport....... ? 116,565 498,200 6'1,140 829,121) 1,077,483 Ashiabula.... 252,624 523,414 578,832, 1 039,920) 1,177,626 Ashtabula.... P 390,489 577,266 704,678 924 "480| 1,005,279 | eae) a 91,257 210,431 240,000 291,455) 310,180 |) Se PEE Mp ancinrebncntiasnivoansiuiestbiiswses opxeesy” Scvnsipuneleas | meseabeiibeowdh mxeaqents. ots 82,140} 177,303 Bu ffalo......... D., L. & W. and Lehigh Valley. |...cccccc.....+| secccsesseesee 240,000 298,000} 516,296

| —_— SIU Six" Ui cate iii nt Gasisiehiuecdichon bebmaiehiehann sebennntaiics | 2,223,718 3,420,557] 3,952,898 5.757.314) 6,885,017

From the above its appears that the per cent. of all ore handled at each port in 1890 was as follows: Toledo, 2.44; Huron, .o2; San- dusky, 2.59; Lorain, 4.13; Cleveland, 28.90; Fairport, 15.65; Ash- tabula, 31.70; Erie, 7.08; Buffalo, 7.49.

From the same figures it seems that the per cent. of increase at Cleveland in five years has been 68.12, while the increase in five years of the Cleveland & Pittsburgh at Cleveland has been 182.33.

MELTING IRON BY ELECTRICITY.

If the claims of the inventor are to be credited a great revolution in iron melting is impending. It is related of the inventor, a Mil- waukee man, that several years ago he took notice of the great amount of coke used in melting iron by the present method. This set him to studying in an attempt to discover a method by which the cost of melting metal could be cheapened. At first his experiments were unsuccessful, but he persevered, and about a month ago he was delighted to find that after many tests one had proved successful. His method of melting the iron is described as follows by a local paper: The metal is placed in a cupola, to which electrical connec- tions are made. A switch is turned, which sends a strong current of electricity through the metal and forms arcs at each electrode. This produces a great heat, which melts the iron very rapidly. The molten metal then flows into a receptacle below the cupola, and from there it is drawn off for use. The new process saves one-half the time and one-half the cost of the present method. It also does away with the use of coke, lime and sand. Iron melted by electricity, he claims, will be at least 100 per cent. (s7c) purer than that rendered in the present way.

But the inventor’s claims are not received without protest. In the first place, a new Richmond has appeared in the field, claiming, in a very vigorous newspaper card, that the whole idea was stolen from him; and, to cap the climax, still another correspondent comes to the front with a mathematical demonstration to show that “the melting of iron by electricity cannot be done economically, unless some one can produce electricity at less than one-seventieth of its present cost.”’ This for the following reasons:

Thermal unit is the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water at 32 degrees, one degree—that is from 32 degrees to 33 degrees. Dr. Ioule found that by the expenditure of one unit of heat, 772 pounds of weight could be raised one foot high. The mechanical measure of heat is therefore taken at 772 pounds and is called Ioule’sunit. This standard is accepted by all scientists all over the world. Heat and mechanical energy are mutually convertible, and heat requires for its production, or produces by its disappearance mechanical energy in the proportion of 772 foot pounds for each unit. Specific heat of a body means its capacity for heat, or its power of storing heat, or the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of the body one degree compared with that required to raise the temperature of an equal weight of water one degree. The specific heat of iron is 0.1299, water

being one. Therefore in order to melt one pound of iron—the iron being raised about 2,000 degrees in temperature—it will take 2,000 times 0.1299 units of heat or 269 units of heat. Those 260 units are equivalent to a mechanical energy of 260 times 772 foot-pouuds or 100,720 foot-pounds. As 33,000 foot- pounds are equal to one horse-power, it is evident it would take 100,720: 33,000 horse-powers or about 3% horse-power of mechanical energy to melt one pound ofiron. The very best engines need about two pounds of coal per hour for horse-power, or seven pounds for 314 horse-power. In an ordinary cupola with one pound of coke ten pounds of iron can be melted, whereas, with elec- tricity, only one pound with seven pounds of coal or its 314 horse-power equiv- alent mechanical energy—or, in other words, it takes seventy times as much fuel to melt iron by electricity as it does by the present method.

Up to the present writing the inventors have not picked up the gage of battle.

THE SOUTH STANDING THE STRAIN.

As was to be expected, the close financial times have had the effect of checking enterprise in the South, as, indeed, in all parts of the country. Nevertheless, the building up of that section has shown encouraging progress during the past nine months, as demon- strated by the following figures presented by the Manufacturer's Record:

TOR Fe P RCO iicscces soc decccsvcsiecsosnsnccuesssccsncscsnedtassbenesesbwestayses cvbcnesson vevootestbeetsnbosee auvcncasasseseeseecee 6

Machine shops and foundries... Agricultural pene factories

Flour nrills... i ose me 40 Cotton mills . Geen 1 ine elie wae cntnnlix Ciukdgubsnaiouieecen ven ahounioghinen PTE RS PRE ONEIDA 58 Furniture _e 38 Ges works.. eoecoses 20 Water works . eoees mesecesees seeseccceoce 77 Carriage and wagon “factories... Gidaiaie cena’ okiguhsuetedsonctoareminagpgvedbet’ 26 Flectric-light plamts...........:--sessssesseesssssssessesesessenennseeensnseneneeanes sencsrssseeaenerersesensssssescsaganssseeees 124 Mining and quarrying enterprises... 413 Wood-working factories, including. saw and planing mills, sash and door factories, TT a cass cicuns Sisouaraqn sen enibn tn Geni katasuee<Suons iseaueenictuebinseSyediadnbnaaendess speysas casestadeks 376 BASS BONO 5.0.0, ns. cnsorssenveccvncssovoesonvscssvereses sovesesensadevoens oases evapo seusesnsooas cussenneneou ensectecadecnensd eves 58 CRIEE TET OEIOG vi snccccvonsessors pucssscovesseessovonenestbepensaneorecnas soeseeseqesnsnbsueves penne <aqursostsvocnousacconessotess 48 Stove foundries .................00+ . jagocdsatisswbuhihin’ <ubtui pecatteiedenbes 6 IIIS... 1 ccs hacrieias's catenin snnmabiwantnsucenchiphiots oe sease encase senses cssnsessense reese 129 Miscellaneous iron and steel wor rolling mills, pipe works, etc... oe 40 ee BBG vnnicsscsccncouscvcnceschvibentarehoecseconcececconpeckorsiavestins: Sessebiawneseces 18 Cottonseed-oil mills.. snipe aiaamlabadimadead ssessovavigadvunteiees 28 Miscellaneous enterprises not included ‘in foregoing.. ap Sania as Che Usiethassinune tukicnaiieaobesienirniens 883 Total . sonpase vorsestaces SANS

This es some 700 eo ‘ie. ponurer penay ‘the inennanlle period of 1890, and is not so great a falling off as might be expected. How many of the enterprises in question were actualized does not appear, but no doubt a goodly proportion of them are in operation. Concerning the outlook the Record says:

The manufacturing enterprises in operation have gone along steadily. Banking and general business operations, though somewhat restricted, in the volume, have stood the financial strain remarkably well. Despite the extreme depression in iron, Southern furnaces have generally been running to their full capacity and making some profit; cotton mills have been busy, and in nearly every line of manufacturing there has been a steady, substantial gain even during the great monetary stringency. The way in which the South has stood the strain hasssurprised the financial world, and has materially strength- ened the confidence of the capitalists of the North in the great future of this section.

Certainly our contemporary has good reason for congratulation.

MINING TAXES IN MICHIGAN,

Iron-mining companies will be particularly interested in the work of the Michigan State Board of Equalization, just brought to a close. ‘The valuation of the State was equalized at $1,130,000,000, an increase of $184,550,000 over its value as equalized five years ago. This increase includes $75,000,000 worth of mining property which will this year be subjected to direct taxation for State purposes for the first time. After having adjusted the difficulties which they deemed existed between the valuation of the several counties, as equalized by the boards of supervisors, and State board added 15 per cent. to cover the material growth of the State during the last half decade.

The books of the Auditor-General’s office show that the specific taxes received from mines for the past five years averaged $80,000 per year, and this amount the mining counties as equalized will pay in direct taxes. It was also ascertained by the board that the non- producing mines valued at $10,000,000, paid nothing in State taxes under the old law. These will now pay their proportion of the State tax, being directly assessed therefor, on the same value at which they were assessed for local purposes. This is, in substance, the state- ment of the case, as we find it in a Michigan paper, and we give it as an item of general interest.

Our vigilant contemporary, the Marine Review, figures out that the total iron ore shipments from Lake Superior mines up to Sep- tember 1, aggregated 3,954,510 tons, as against 5,459.510 tons up to September 3, 1890, a decrease during the present season of 1,505,000 tons. The decrease is about equal to the shortage as compared with last year, caused by the delay in the ore movement this year, so that the shipments since June 1, of this year, are about equal to those

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‘Tue Iron ‘Trapp Review. 3

covering a corresponding period of 1890. That the shipments from now on to the close of navigation will begin to compare with those of last year nobody, of course, expects.

NATURAL GAS IN INDIANA,

The Terre Haute Apress sums up the recent agitation in Indiana, over the natural gas scare, as follows :

The dispute as to whether the supply of natural gas in this State is getting low has reached that stage where the veracity and the motives of a reputable Indianapolis newspaper on one hand, and reputable citizens and newspapers of the gas territory on the other hand, are directly in question. The premises on which an opinion ought to be based would seem to be so plain that both sides could agree as to them, but they do not, and so the actual condition of the gas-bearing wells as well as the deductions and theories, are in controversy. It is an important matter, and not alone to the gas region, but to all the State. While we here at Terre Haute do not enjoy the advantage and luxury of a sup- ply of natural gas, we are indirectly benefited by the increased prosperity of any part of the State.

The Indianapolis Vews asserts that its reports were the result of an ex- haustive investigation by competent and unbiased persons. These reports tell a story of steadily diminishing pressure and supply and steadily increasing demand. The News said:

“There is an element of greater certainty in the estimate of the Indiana field, for, as set forth, it seems to be a lake, universal within its boundaries, and not a congeries of veins and pockets such as make up the Pennsylvania field. Consequently, there is a nearly uniform pressure in Indiana wells, lightest at the edges of the field or subterranean gas lake, heaviest toward the center, but grading equably—hardly a variation of more than 10 pounds in similar wells.

“The developments have been in keeping with this condition, namely, a gradual and uniform decline in pressure ; no new wells spouting now at the initial pressure of the old wells, but at their first flow reaching only the aver- age to which the old ones have declined. The thing seems to be simply a matter of arithmetic.

‘“‘ None the less interesting is the study of a map of this territory showing how the pipe lines are sucking the field all around and crawling yearly, monthly, daily, nearer its heart, the territory outside the field using more than that within. But no quest is long getting answer in one spot, and the com- munities within as well as without the field find it necessary to extend lines even toward the center of supply. Meantime the waste of this steadily failing fuel is indicated as still going on. It behooves the gas burning communities of Indiana to open their eyes and look the situation squarely in the face.”

This statement met with a vigorous and emphatic denial at every point in the Indian Territory. Men of undoubted reputation for truthfulness say the fact is, there is no diminution in the pressure and that the Vews investigators did not consult the best authority when they visited the gas ficld. The news- papers of Marion, Munice, Anderson, Kokomo and other places in the field were unrestrained, not only in their denials, but in imputing a bad motive for causing the “scare.” The newspapers, which are supposed to be familiar with the ways of the big gas companies, said it was part of the scheme to form a monopoly of ownership of gas wells and pipe lines, and then creating the impression that the supply is falling off, find less resistance to higher rates to the consumers. The Indianapolis /ourna/ procured statements from prominent citizens in the leading gas towns, who have made the natural gas question a special study, and without exception, they say the supply is as great to-day as ever. President Jones, of the Normal College, at Marion, says:

“T have given the natural gas question considerable attention, and, from the indications here, I have no fears of the early exhaustion of the supply. I base my faith on the records of the different wells as given by those who own them and use them.”

J. F. Darnell, President of the Muncie Nail Works, and an authority on the gas question, says that the reports that the gas supply is running short and the pressure weakening are untrue and misleading. Everyone admits that in the days of the first discovery of the gas, many blunders were made and that there was a wastefulness. The blunders then made in drilling and controlling wells in some instances resulted in their abandonment within the past year, but wells properly developed alongside of these, and virtually at the same time, are to-day flowing as strong as the day the gas reservoir was tapped by the drills.

Taken altogether the preponderance of testimony is against the Vews. We do not intend to say, by any means, that the conclusion is reached that it has willingly been a party to any scheme whose ulterior purpose is to profit by misrepresentation of the gas supply. If its investigation, honestly set on foot, was diverted by interested parties, more’s the pity, but the injury to the State is done. And in this connection it should be said that it is a mistake to suppose the people who are unfortunate in not having a home supply of the gas rejoice in the alarming story of the shortage of the fuel, as a few angry newspapers in the gas territory try to make their readers believe.

The President’’ Comes to Grief.

An accident occurred to the big engine President” at the Friedensville zinc mines on Tuesday, and to-day the builder, John West, is on the scene to decide whether it can be repaired or not. While the engine was working and connected with an extra pump, one of the two large walking-beams which connect the engine with the pumps broke in four pieces and the powerful piece of machinery came to a sudden halt.

The broken walking beam weighs 24 tons and is the largest in the country. When the engine was set in position some years ago it required a team of 42 mules to haul each of the walking beams from the Union depot over the

mountain to Friedensville. This feat of transportation was watched by hun- dreds of people, who will readily recall it now. It is possible that Engineer West can repair the broken piece of machinery, in which case the pump will soon be working again. The mines are rapidly filling with water, and unless the pump is soon at work the miners will be forced to abandon their task. The accident is a serious one and the loss to the zinc company will be vast. Captain Eudy, who is traveling in the South, has been telegraphed for. —[Bethlehem (Pa.) Times.

MICHIGAN IRON MINES IN i890.

The report of the Commissioner of Mineral Statistics of Michigan for the yearending September 1, 1890, made to Gov. Winans, states that nearly one- half the iron ore produced in the United States was mined in Michigan, the amount being 7,185,175 tons, with a market value of $41,000,000, and was worth at the mines at least $20,000,000, and all of a superior quality. The average of the ore sent away from the Superior region in 1890 was above 62 per cent. metallic iron, while much of it ran much higher. About one-half of this ore was the Bessemer, which contains so small a percentage of phosphorus as to be manufactured into Bessemer steel. The ores of Lake Superior are far richer and far better than any other, and none have been found that will dis- place them in the market. Long before the opening of 1890 the season’s product of ore had been sold at an advance of from 50 cents to $1 25 per ton above the prices for 1889, and the outlook of the iron mining districts was most gratifying, but at the opening season of 1891 it was not encouraging. The amount of ore in Cleveland and other Lake Erie ports was reported at 3,800,000 gross tons, 1,250,000 larger than ever before.

The highest point secured for iron ore in 1890 was $7.25 per ton, hard ores, which were 66 per cent. iron. The best hard ores so)d $6.50 per ton, an advance of $1 over 1889. There were imported into the United States, chiefly from Spain and Cuba, in 1890, 2,800,000 tons of ore.

A plan has been considered of establishing large plants at Marquette for the manufacture of pig iron, steel and machinery and bring coke there for the purposes, in the belief that fuel could be transported to the ores as cheaply as the ore to the fuel, and a large percentage of cheaper grade ores could be smelted that it does not pay to ship.

Iron-laden vessels from Marquette to Cleveland could return coal-laden, and it could be coked at Marquette and other points. The outlook is that there will be a material falling off in ore production in 1891. The price of pig iron is now very low. Ore is supplied at 50 cents te $1 per ton less than 1890. The production of pig iron has multiplied three-fold in ten years, it having amounted to more than 9,500,000 tons in 1890. The average prices per ton in New York for 1890 were:

Pig iron, WG. % GOMER... sccscisicctieiciocscetcccnse piceukacdindsgeccncieg eamibecetecssie ae BE TEs PO, BINGE os cnccocsiecene.s sqpatnresConacegpeuavertaciiptessteninissateosynetase veeee 16 65 FOTRO...cesseeseereecreeeesescescnsensconscstneceesatsncesss sepeeauuaeees ensseterensaseneneeseessseseesanenes 15 9! BOSS CMe4? PIGZ...... ccccoccescccccercescccccsscsecces evevescssevescesecsseces coccoscocccces eceeessenceses 18 93 GREE CER ioisrctes ocncas cxsinn” so -- Sobeneial tovcnacotageaisovbadoges sasdss desepeninverdaonaipaginn soars 28 93 WELT MAMBRBSS!Y SO POT COME as cri cccrecsescoeseciccas» asdasenvonscncpabievarsosn see voseeseec 63 35

The prices for charcoal pig iron on January 1, 1891, in New York, were:

No.1 foundry BOs B POOR G os ccce coccsvyesentsens Cold blast.......... <i RE i bi cccnscaptes’. oo castvsceossy eniceunirsetatenesaneenes scissantmnvonihensvawadshiaasimanabtidaabeaied There were eighty-two ore-producing iron mines operated in Michigan in 1890, producing 7,185,175 tons of ore, and seventeen blast furnaces producing

225,537 tons of pig iron.

The Channel Tubular Railroad,

At the meeting of the British Association in Cardiff last month Sir Edward Reed presented a paper describing a proposition for constructing a railroad across the British Channel. It is, in brief, to lay tubes of steel oriron and cement concrete on the bottom of the sea. He showed that in no place on the line selected does the depth of water exceed 200 ft. and several miles out from the English coast it is less than 100 ft. deep. The grade would not necessarily exceed 1 in 40. The tubes could be towed out and sunk, and the method of laying them has been very carefully elaborated, “each length of tube as laid being made the instrument and means of bringing the next length into its position with unerring accuracy.” The two lines of tubes will be connected and probably will be 50 ft. apart. They will be approximately 20 ft. in diame- ter and each section 300 ft. long. The cost is estimated as between 412,000,000 and 415,000,000, Ouse point made by Sir Edward is that the tubes cou d be easily destroyed in case of war. In the discussion which followed, Mr. J. H. Greathead held that a tunnel could be made through the chalk for one-quarter the estimated cost of this tube railroad, and he thought the money would never be subscribed for sucha scheme. He doubted if it would be possible to ventilate a tube 20 miles long.

Sir Benjamin Baker said that the cost would be prohibitory. The cost of achannel bridge as proposed by Messrs. Schneider and Hersent would be £35,000,000, and he was of the opinion that that bridge wouid never be built. He did not concider the channel tubular railroad physical impossibility, but financially it is so.

A New Coke Furnace.

Continental engineers are just now discussing the merits of a new coke furnace which has been invented by one Martial Fremont, a Belgian engineer, which is said to produce results that will create nothing less than a revolu- tion in the coke-making industry. It is a reverberating furnace, capable of making coke from a coal very much inferior to that generally used, and the cost is, it is said, half a crown per ton cheaper than the cost of producing coke by ordinary means. One of the large colliery companies is at the present moment laying down some of these new furnaces with a view to trying their capabilities. If successful, the new method of coke manufacture must have a remarkable influence upon the colliery industry of Charleroi.—[Glasgow Engi- neer,

4 “(THe IRON TRApDP Review.

WORLD'S FAIR NOTES

It is probable that the five territories—New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Okla- homa and Alaska—will make their exhibit of their resources and products under one roof.

Commissioner Shufeldt has cabled from Cape Town, South Africa, that an exhibit of diamonds and feathers worth $300,000 will be sent from Cape Town.

W. B. Curtis has been chosen special agent of the Exposition to receive and transmit exhibits received at the port of New York.

The Grounds and Buildings Committee decided to advertise for the con- struction of a building to accommodate four saw mill plants. The structure will be located south of the Agricultural Annex, on piles driven in what is now a natural lagoon. The building wil) be 130x200 feet and will cost $25,000.

Nicaragua wants half an acre for the site ot its building at the Exposition.

Secretary Batterworth, Major Handy, Commissioners Lindsay and Bullock, and Director Peck, comprisiug the Exposition’s European Commission, have returned to this couatry, having visited during the past nine weeks almost every European capital in the interest of the Exposition. This tour has resulted in awakening throughout all Europe very great interest and even enthusiasm in the Fair. It is now certain that Eagland, France, Germany, acd nearly all other European nations, will surpass at Chicago all previous efforts in making exhibits Sir Henry Wood and James Dredge, of the Eng- lish Royal Commission to the Ecposition, and Herr Wermouth, Imperial German Commissioner, accompanied Secretary Butterworth and party to this couatry to inform themselves personally conceraing the Exposition, the regu- lations governing exhibits, etc., and the situation generally, and to select space for their respective governments. They are now being given every facility to acquire the information they desire, aud are the recipients of many courtesies at the hands of the Exposition management. Commissioners from other Eu- ropean nations are expected soon on a similar mission.

The Brazilian government intends to make a magnificent display at the Exposition and will invest not less than $500,000 in carrying out the plans for its representation.

Two anchors that Columbus carried in his ships will be exh bited at the Fair, and already one of them is stored in Washington, waiting to be brought to Chicago.

Lord Stanley has promised to do all he can to have the Dominion of Canada make a creditable exhibit at the Exposition. Many prominent Ca- nadians are equally interested, and have promised their aid. This result is due in a large measure to the exertions of J Allen H -rnsby, of the Depart- ment of Electricity of the Exposition, among the delegates to the recent Na- tional Electric Light Association at Montreal.

k. T. Jeffrey, Chairman of the Grounds and Buildings Committee of the Exposition, made the following estimate of necessary I’xpusition expenses for submission to the recent meeting of the National Commission :

Buildings cccscsecceseceh 7;295,000 Grading and filling... ces 450,000 Tandscape..............+++ 323,490 Viaducts and bridges pacbass dant 125,« 00 Been acans Hulian us seecen stu Slbsnie siponduppee catddbonss<andeecetoonncsépnes snapinseases cae chsecheseeactedeseesssseene 70,000 NT SIU III Con 5 nce. 04 ne srestesesconncsnsneeeceesons cvcnsescashvensseesecesvesesscssccorsssss BS COO RE CURIE GING DO TUEIIIE ooo ceinc.', carencvcrsscenneesccsravcenseeesaes esguceveds disteeed esate 600,000 IID, cocnctcuscunhestausaidamneerecess Bs Ae eee ah AA Sy 8 500,000 Steam plant. 800,000 MRRSCUSICICY 200 00ccccce002s00 1,500,c 00 Statuary on building 100,000 Vases, lamps and posts Gasktbos 50.000 Se er SR EE CMEMNNRGEN GE 5 555s ncnuv sv covssnncdsterdpasvnaes<nsestebacnses te” scaevecee . 20,000 Te osc cn sd usp Sicoe Ube cadgna’ On vebeucessensin(phbcabined Sta sikica hasade 5,000 NEN COIPONININGL (i. 5a cs cscs ebae bbnaneredngpeulehaeennances siupyectat=eascecsnn ancessech 210,000 RUNNIN SON, IE BEING 550.50 is csncednveseganss sbendpennedénananecesenccenebonstsosncnectae.. osinceses 200,000 General expenses of Construction Department................ccccccceeseeeeeesseeeeeeenes 500,000 Organizaticn and administration..................... _ iccapepenecinn Sanaa PECs PRLS GIN, COREE SOT rc ccdain eins ccnicees veccvcctccscssossesetenscccesenenscesses £5550/000

IAL a 7 Was th cicada ty oth vices isnakeks ticpheass asaunacsseavsavses ted apecabbapeeyoneeseaeiiavensnecte $17,825,453

THE OCTOBER MEETING OF THE MINING ENGI VEERS

The sixtieth meeting of the American Institute of Mining Engineers will be held at Glen Summit, Luzerne county, Pa, beginning Tuesday evening, October 6, and continuing for three days. The opening session and Wednes- day morning and afternoon are given up tb the reading and discussion of papers, to be followed by acamp-fire in the evening, on the grounds of Gen. Paul A. Oliver, at Oliver Milis. Thursday is set aside for an excursion in the Wyoming region, luncheon at Harvey’s Lake, a session following in the even- ing. An excursion has been planned for Friday, including a visit to the iron breakers of Coke Brothers & Co, and to several cojleries in the vicinity. An opportunity will be offered on Saturday to those who desire to visit Glen Onoko and the Switchback, Mauch Chunk. The following papers are an- nounced, and special discussions are expected on “The Preparation and Utilization of Small Sizes of Anthracite Coal,” and ‘“‘ The Practical Uses of Con- centrated Iron Ores.” Electricity in Mining, as Applied by the Aspen Min- ing and Smelting Co.,” by M. B. Holt, Aspen, Cul ; Electric Locomotives in German Mines,” by Paul Eilers, Berlin, Germany; ‘‘ The Manufacture of Liquid Salphurous Acid iv Upper Silesia,” by Karl Eilers, Berlin, Germany; “A Chinese System of Gold Milling,” by Henry Louis, Singapore, Siraits Settlement; * Tne Ucil zitiono’ Puddle Slag tor Patnt Stock,” by Axel Sahlin, New Y rk City; Toe Fiorence Oi! Fields, Colorado,” by George H. Eldridge, U.3.G ©». Survey, Washington, D.C; “A Survey o' the Planches de Plata Maes Sonora.” by H-ory M Stanley and Henry O. Filpper, Nogales, Arizona;

So-ordtaate Surveying,” oy H ary O Flipper, Nogales, Arizona; * Cord-wood in M: tag Bis Farnac-.” by H roert Liang, Miveral, Idaho; “Tne Ben- ds Gi F ds” by T A Reckerd, Allem> +, Isere, France; Apparatus tor th M aateno’ Irova-d S eel P ates Diri g the Process of F nishing,”

ny Gan Curis Prs>urgh Po; “Toe Handling of Ingots and Molds in Besse mer S « 1 Works,” by Gam Cur is, Pittshurgh, Pa ; ‘Centrifugal Venti- lators,’, by R. Van A. Norris, Wiikesbarre, Pa,; ‘Tandem Tanks for Hoisting

Water From Flooded Slopes,” by J. H. Bowden, Wilkesbarre, Pa.; “The Utili- zation of Anthracite Waste by Gasification in Producers,” by W. H. Blauvelt, Philadelphia, Pa ; “The Use of Magnetic Concentrates in the Port Henry Blast Furnaces,” by N. M. Langdon, Port Henry, N Y.

SOME CURIOSITIES OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS.

SKULL AND CROSSBONES ON CABLE POLEs.—To prevent accidents from the Lauffen-Frankfort cable, which transmits a deadly current of 25,000 volts, all the poles for the 112 miles are adorned with skulls and crossbones surmounted with a warning notice.

A NEw WATER INDUSTRY.—So numerous are the electric launches on the Thames that floating charging stations containing a dynamo plant ply up and down the river ready to charge the accummulators of six launches at once.

A NEW SAFETY MINING CaABLE.—An electric wire breaking in a mine will frequently give forth a spark, thus exploding the dangerous gases.. A recent invention is a safety mining cable which can be torn apart without spark, arc or flame.

NIAGARA POWER FOR CHICAGO —The successful transmission of a powerful current of electricity from Lautfen to Frankfort has revived interest in the suggestion to send a current of equal intensity from Niagara to Chicago.

SIMPLIFICATION OF SWITCHBOARDS —A telephone system for use in large factories has been invented, in which each telephone has its own switchboard, so that any person can communicate with any telephone on the line by simply moving a switch.

OLD ROME's NEW LIGHT —Rome is to be lighted by electricity by the first ofthe year. A motor at Tivoli, about twelve miles distant, will supply the